marie antoinette husband

Required fields are marked *. Many French people were beginning to blame her for the degrading economic situation, suggesting the country's inability to pay off its debt was the result of her wasting the crown's money. Marie Antoinette was happy with a daughter; a son would have belonged to the nation, a daughter she could keep to herself. [89][90] However, the hamlet was not an eccentricity of Marie Antoinette's. [205] In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. Marie Antoinette was an Austrian archduchess who wed the heir apparent years before the French Revolution began, when she was just 14. She learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. On the advice of Mercy, Marie Antoinette opened secret negotiations with him and both agreed to meet privately at the château de Saint-Cloud on 3 July 1790, where the royal family was allowed to spend the summer, free of the radical elements who watched their every move in Paris. One of the most important was Necker, the Prime Minister of Finances (Premier ministre des finances). This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 14:20. On 15 July Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette was named commander-in-chief of the newly formed Garde nationale. A new Constitution was drafted — Louis had no option than to accept it. A siren call even sweeter than her husband's voice roused Marie Antoinette from her malaise at court. Initially banned by the king due to its negative portrayal of the nobility, the play was finally allowed to be publicly performed because of the queen's support and its overwhelming popularity at court, where secret readings of it had been given by Marie Antoinette. The national assembly, upon hearing that King Louis had intentions to suppress them, became more provoked. [221], Long after her death, Marie Antoinette remains a major historical figure linked with conservatism, the Catholic Church, wealth, and fashion. [31][32] The queen did play a decisive role in the disgrace and exile of the most powerful of Louis XV's ministers, the duc d'Aiguillon. She was married aged 14 to the dauphin of France in a dynastic marriage arranged by her parents and Louis XV in 1770. The estimated number of those killed varies between 12 and 50. She learned to play the harp,[10] the harpsichord and the flute. Marie Antoinette's mother and the Austrian ambassador to France, comte de Mercy-Argenteau, who sent the Empress secret reports on Marie Antoinette's behavior, pressured Marie Antoinette to speak to Madame du Barry, which she grudgingly agreed to do on New Year's Day 1772. Ninety minutes later, the palace was invaded by the mob, who massacred the Swiss Guards. Family and Early Life While from late 1787 up to his death in June 1789, Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis,[123] she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement, the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General. Je ne l’ai pas fait exprès" or "Pardon me, sir, I did not do it on purpose", after accidentally stepping on her executioner's shoe. Marie Antoinette was the last queen of France before the French Revolution. This move angered the Third Estate; so they declared themselves as the national assembly; the mouthpiece of the nation. A significant achievement of Marie Antoinette in that period was the establishment of an alliance with Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, the most important lawmaker in the assembly. Her hair was shorn, her hands bound painfully behind her back and she was put on a rope leash. Their reaction comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her. The Parisians requested the King visit Paris to acknowledge their victory. Their common desire to destroy the ambitions of Prussia and Great Britain and to secure a definitive peace between their respective countries led them to seal their alliance with a marriage: on 7 February 1770, Louis XV formally requested the hand of Maria Antonia for his eldest surviving grandson and heir, Louis-Auguste, duc de Berry and Dauphin of France. She accepted Necker's proposition to double the representation of the Third Estate (tiers état) in an attempt to check the power of the aristocracy. The Queen gave a great deal of scope for gossip and those that wished to spread more malicious rumours had ample opportunities to do so (Lever, 2000, pp.110-11). Dumouriez resigned and refused a post in any new government. Leaving the tower she bumped her head against the lintel of a door, which prompted one of her guards to ask her if she was hurt, to which she answered, "No! It was publicly suggested that her supposed behavior was learned at the court of the rival nation, particularly lesbianism, which was known as the "German vice". Rose Bertin created dresses for her, and hairstyles such as poufs, up to three feet (90 cm) high, and the panache (a spray of feather plumes). If the secret expenses of the queen were taken into account, court expenses were much higher than the official estimate of 7% of the state budget. [112] This change of the queen's position signaled the end of the Polignacs' influence and their impact on the finances of the Crown. In 1774, King Louis XV died, and Antoinette and her husband became King and Queen. The French alliance with Austria pushed France into the fruitless Seven Years War which saw the British & Prussians tear down France. Died in childhood on the very day the Estates General convened. She was born an archduchess of Austria and was the penultimate child and youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa and Emperor Francis I. "[196] This was the most difficult period of her captivity. It inspired Mozart's Le Nozze di Figaro, which premiered in Vienna on 1 May 1786. Louis, the last real French King, tasted monarchical power beginning in 1774. Rousseau ascribes these words to a "great princess", but the purported writing date precedes Marie Antoinette's arrival in France. June 17, 2020, Marie Antoinette’s Husband – King Louis XVI. "[48] He disclosed to Leopold that the inexperienced—then still only 22-year-old—Louis XVI had confided in him the course of action he had been undertaking in their marital bed; saying Louis XVI "introduces the member," but then "stays there without moving for about two minutes," withdraws without having completed the act and "bids goodnight. On the other hand, both the king and the queen trusted Mme de Polignac completely, gave her a thirteen-room apartment in Versailles and paid her well. Some historians believe the outcome of the trial had been decided in advance by the Committee of Public Safety around the time the Carnation Plot (fr) was uncovered. A marriage between the two royal houses had been planned since the early 1760s, but only came about in 1770. [222], The phrase "Let them eat cake" is often attributed to Marie Antoinette, but there is no evidence that she ever uttered it, and it is now generally regarded as a journalistic cliché. A further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. As a result of the public perception that she had single-handedly ruined the national finances, Marie Antoinette was given the nickname of "Madame Déficit" in the summer of 1787. [45][46], Amidst the atmosphere of a wave of libelles, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II came to France incognito, using the name Comte de Falkenstein, for a six-week visit during which he toured Paris extensively and was a guest at Versailles. Lafayette's reputation never recovered from the event and, on 8 October, he resigned as commander of the Garde Nationale. The moderate government collapsed in April 1792 to be replaced by a radical majority headed by the Girondins. [157][158][159] Fersen and Breteuil, who represented her in the courts of Europe, were put in charge of the escape plan, while Marie Antoinette continued her negotiations with some of the moderate leaders of the French Revolution.[160][161]. [68][69], Marie Antoinette's second pregnancy ended in a miscarriage early in July 1779, as confirmed by letters between the queen and her mother, although some historians believed that she may have experienced bleeding related to an irregular menstrual cycle, which she mistook for a lost pregnancy. During the Revolution, she became known as Madame Déficit because the country's financial crisis was blamed on her lavish spending and her opposition to the social and financial reforms of Turgot and Necker. On 19 April the wedding took place by proxy in Vienna, marrying the Dauphin and future Louis XVI, the grandson of Louis XV, to Marie-Antoinette, the youngest daughter of Maria-Theresa of Habsburg.On 16 May, the young Archduchess arrived at Versailles. At this time, the French kingdom was in economic troubles. [228], Last Queen of France prior to the French Revolution, Articles and topics related to Marie Antoinette, Generations are numbered by male-line descent from, Significant civil and political events by year, Motherhood, changes at court, intervention in politics (1778–81), Prelude to the Revolution: scandals and the failure of reforms (1786–89), Failure of political and financial reforms, French Revolution before Varennes (1789–91), Flight, arrest at Varennes and return to Paris (21–25 June 1791), Radicalization of the Revolution after Varennes (1791–92), Events leading to the abolition of the monarchy on 10 August 1792, harvnb error: multiple targets (4×): CITEREFFraser2002 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLever2006 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPierre_NolhacLa_Dauphine_Marie_Antoinette,1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNolhac1929 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAlfred_et_Geffroy_D'ArnethCorrespondance_Secrete_entre_Marie-Therese_et_le_Comte_de_Mercy-Argenteau,_vol_31874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCronin1974 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFALfred_and_Geffroy_d'Arneth1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFJackes_LevronMadame_du_Barry1973 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFEvelyne_LeverMarie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_ii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLeverMarie_Antoinette_1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geffroy_i1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoward_Patricia,_Gluck1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFArneth_and_Geoffroy,_iii1874 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice_MunroPreserving_the_Monarchy:_The_Comte_de_Vergennes,_1774–17871995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPrice1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLettres_de_Marie_AntoinetteLe_Marquis_de_Beaucourt1895Vol_ii (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLever,_Marie_Antoinette1991 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMunro_PriceThe_Road_to_Versailles2003 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFZweig_StephanMarie_Antoinette1938 (, Farr, Evelyn, Marie Antoinette and Count Fersen: Untold Love Story, Hunt, Lynn. ] its creation, however, caused another uproar when its cost became widely.... 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